Chi-rectangular screening were used which have categorical parameters; ANOVAs were utilized with continuous parameters
To research demographic, fitness position, and comorbidity differences between schizophrenia caregivers, and non-caregiver control, and you will ranging from schizophrenia caregivers, or other caregivers, bivariate analyses was indeed performed.
Covariates listed above (class and you can health characteristics) was entered to your one logistic regression model to assume bringing worry in order to a grownup patient with schizophrenia against. maybe not providing worry. Other independent logistic regression design are set you back assume bringing care and attention to a grownup patient having schizophrenia compared to. people providing care for grownups with a disorder except that schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was matched up to help you non-caregiver and other caregiver participants with the propensity Age Gap Sites dating site get utilizing the “greedy” matching algorithm . A 1:2 matching ratio is actually accompanied, each schizophrenia caregiver is actually paired in order to a couple low-caregiver manage respondents and by themselves in order to a couple of caregivers out of most other conditions. Post-fits, differences when considering these types of organizations were lso are-tested to confirm enough complimentary. And additionally, the newest coordinating are constrained to make certain that most of the matches was basically inside per 5EU nation.
Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.
All in all, 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 low-caregivers control and you may 14,341 caregivers off most other requirements have been known via 5EU NHWS around the 2010, 2011 and you may 2013. Within full attempt out-of 173,728 adults along the 5EU, twenty five.4 % were in France, twenty-five.step three % into the Germany, twenty five.six % in the united kingdom, 14.0 % during the Italy, and you can 9.6 % in The country of spain.
Schizophrenia caregivers versus. non-caregivers
The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).
After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).
Schizophrenia versus. other caregivers
Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).